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Society and labour market


    The Wielkopolska Region is inhabited by about 3.5 million people. Current demographic trends, such as: population migrations, the aging of the society, changes in the family model and a decrease in birth rate, affect many areas of life: the labor market, the housing market, the health and social care system, education, and the transport system. Consequences of the progressive aging of the population may in the near future turn out to be a particularly significant issue. Negative demographic processes, even though slower than in other parts of the country, are shaping the future of the Wielkopolska society. Demographic changes affect the supply and demand of specific social services, the potential of human and social capital, the development of innovativeness of the economy - the development of new branches of the silver and white economy.

    One of the challenges faced by the Region Local Government is maintaining social cohesion. Demographic changes in intra-regional terms - especially those caused by migration - affect local labor markets (e.g. the phenomenon of washing away human capital resources), the social structure of inhabitants and the related structure of the local economy. The use of employees from outside our country by employers, and recently also the influx of migrants from Ukraine, result in the need to adapt public services to foreigners and their social integration. The growing migratory traffic puts pressure on the development of transport services in the individual and collective dimensions. With the number of children decreasing, the education sector will also need transformation. The challenge is to counteract deurbanization and chaotic suburbanization, which result in a decrease in the population of cities in favor of the surrounding functional areas. Effective integration of development planning is necessary in this respect.

    In order to increase the social security of the inhabitants of the region, it is necessary to: improve access to public goods and services and activate people who are excluded, marginalized or at risk of the phenomena to participate in various spheres of socio-economic life. Eliminating the threat of poverty and its inheritance will affect the social cohesion of the region and the development of the economy.


    The Condition and structure of the population of the WIELKOPOLSKA REGION

    (Selected indicators)

    • According to the results of the National Census of Population and Housing, the population in the Wielkopolska Region, as of March 31, 2021, was 3,504.6 thousand people, which was 9.2% nationally.
    • Population in the Wielkopolska Region was systematically growing, contrary to the nationwide downward trend. It was only in 2021 that a slight decrease was recorded.
    • The largest concentration of population is in Poznan and the Poznan poviat, where 28% of the region's inhabitants live. The poviats of Międzychód and Chodzież have the smallest number of inhabitants.
    • In the structure of the population by place of residence in 2021, urban population prevailed - 53.55% of the region's inhabitants. Suburbanization is a phenomenon characteristic of Wielkopolska, as a result of it the number of inhabitants of rural areas and smaller towns located near the largest urban centers is constantly increasing.
    • The feminization coefficient, which defines the relationship between the number of women and men, i.e. the number of women per 100 men in the Wielkopolska Region, is 106. The dominance of women is larger in the oldest age groups. The projected average life expectancy of Wielkopolska women is also several years longer than that of men.
    • In the Wielkopolska Region, similarly to the country, gradual changes are being observed in the structure of the population by economic age groups. In 2021, the share of the post-working age population increased again to 21.0%. On the other hand, the number of people of working age, who in 2020 accounted for 59.4% of Wielkopolska inhabitants, is decreasing.
    • The population forecast for 2014-2050 assumes a further decrease in the population and the continuation of unfavorable demographic phenomena. The expected decrease in the population of Wielkopolska in 2050, as compared to 2023 is to amount to 204 thousand people, i.e. 6.2%.

    Internal (intra- and inter-regional) and foreign migrations have an impact on population changes. In 2021, the migration balance amounted to 2,000 people, with the internal migration balance reaching the level of 1,799 people, and the foreign migration balance, 201 people.


    Labour market

    As compared to the rest of the country, the Wielkopolska Region has significant labor resources, concentrating about 10% of all working people in Poland. The labor market is characterized by volatility and dependence on many socio-economic factors, including mainly the condition of the economy and enterprises in relation to the average salary and demographic trends. It is also inextricably linked with the level of education and the directions of education of the population. Despite various fluctuations, the level of employment in Wielkopolska is increasing, while the level of registered unemployment is at the lowest level in the country.

    Self-employment is very popular and appreciated in Wielkopolska. Sole proprietorships and micro-enterprises are an important element of the labor market and an expression of entrepreneurship in Wielkopolska. The region is characterized by long traditions of craftsmanship and dynamic activity of guilds and chambers in the development of craftsmanship and educating young adepts of the professions. Social entrepreneurship and cooperatives are also developing dynamically. Supporting innovative entrepreneurship is a priority for maintaining the economic development of the region.

    Unemployment in our region varies geographically depending on the location of a poviat on the map of Wielkopolska and the specificity of its internal conditions. Public Employment Services operating in our Region conduct intensive activities for professional activation every year, maximizing the use of funds received from the Labor Fund and other sources, including the EU funds or the National Training Fund.

    The high employment rate and low unemployment rate indicate shrinking human resources in Wielkopolska. According to the 8th edition of the Occupational Barometer survey, there are as many as 36 shortage professions in Wielkopolska. Deficiencies in two areas important for the future of Wielkopolska, i.e. in education, which helps to educate future employees, and in medicine, which is becoming crucial due to the aging of the population are particularly disturbing. Other sectors important for the region's economy also face a staff shortage.

    It is a challenge for the Wielkopolska labor market to increase employment opportunities by adapting the education process to the expectations of employers and, at the same time, to the needs of the innovative economy. The rapid pace of changes in the labor market, caused, among others, by progressing technological development, makes it necessary to respond flexibly to the emerging demand for new competences and qualifications. Technological progress can lead to the polarization of the labor market, especially in terms of the displacement of human work by modern technologies, and at the same time result in an increase in the demand for employees with new qualifications. Therefore, it is crucial to create conditions for the development of lifelong learning.


    The labor market of the Wielkopolska Region

    (Selected indicators)

    Economic activity of the population in the Wielkopolska Region in the fourth quarter of 2022

    • At the end of 2022, the professionally active population comprised 1,654 thousand people, i.e. 1.0% less than in the corresponding quarter of 2021.
    • The professional activity rate was 59.7% (58.2% in Poland). It was the third highest value among Polish Regions. This rate is much higher in the male population (69.0%) than in the female population (51.0%).
    • In the fourth quarter of 2022, the number of employees was 1,623 thousand, i.e. 0.3% less than in the previous year. The employed constituted 58.5% of the total population aged 15–89. It was the third highest value of the employment rate among Polish Regions. For people of working age, this indicator amounted to 79.7%.
    • The professionally inactive population comprises more than 1.1 million people and constitutes 40.3% of the total population aged 15–89. The main reasons for inactivity are: retirement (48.6% of the surveyed population), learning and improving professional qualifications (21.8%) as well as illness and disability (11.7%).


    Average employment in the enterprise sector

    • The average employment in the enterprise sector in the Wielkopolska Region in February 2023 amounted to 860.9 thousand people and increased by 1.9%, as compared to the same period a year earlier.
    • The sectors with the highest level of employment invariably remain: manufacturing (37.3%), trade; repair of motor vehicles (33.6%) and transport and storage (10.6%).


    Registered unemployment

    • The Wielkopolska Region has the lowest unemployment rate in the country, which has been maintained since August 2006.
    • At the end of December 2022, the registered unemployment rate in the region was 2.9% (nationally 4.5%).
    • At the end of 2022, there were 46,289 people in the registers of poviat labor offices.
    • Women (58.6%) and the long-term unemployed (40.8%) stand out in the structure of registered unemployment. In terms of education, people with basic vocational/industry education and lower secondary/primary and lower education prevail.
    • In the Wielkopolska Region, there is a large regional disparity in unemployment. The city of Poznan and the Poznan poviat have the lowest unemployment rate, amounting to 1.0% at the end of 2022. In turn, the highest values of this indicator concern poviats from the eastern and northern part of the region: Konin 7.6%, Słupca 7.3% and Chodzież 7.0%.


    Foreigners on the Wielkopolska labor market

    • In 2022, 109 thousand declarations of intention to entrust work to foreigners were registered, of which 59.0% concerned Ukrainians, 18.5% Belarusians, and 15.8% Georgians. Due to the war in Ukraine and the change in the rules of employment of Ukrainian citizens, the number of declarations decreased by almost 90 thousand, as compared to 2021.
    • In 2022, employers in Wielkopolska Region reported employing 73,781 war migrants from Ukraine.
    • According to the data of the Social Insurance Institution, as of December 31, 2022, 79,291 foreigners were registered for insurance as employees or as persons conducting non-agricultural business activity in Wielkopolska, of which 74.2% are citizens of Ukraine.



    The average monthly gross salary in the enterprise sector in February 2023 amounted to PLN 6,346.65 in the Wielkopolska Region. On an annual basis, it means an increase by 14.7% (a year ago the level of salaries increased by 9.2% on an annual basis). In Poland, the average gross monthly salary in the enterprise sector amounted to PLN 7,065.56.